He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. Historian Enrique Florescano also analysing Teotihuacan iconography shows that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. Quetzalcoatl, the Mexican god of wind and learning, wearing around his neck the sign of the wind god, the “wind breastplate” ehecailacocozcatl, “the spirally voluted wind jewel” made of a conch shell (illustration copied from the Codex Borbonicus, p. 22 by Milwaukee Public Museum artist Lee Tishler). Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with St. Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long awaited his return to take part once again in God's kingdom. Usually our current time was considered the fifth sun, the previous four having been destroyed by flood, fire and the like. Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli was considered patron of this calendar (Yólotl González-Torres,1991). Codex Maglabecchiano, fol. Various theories about Quetzalcoatl are popular in the New Age movement, especially since the publication of Tony Shearer's 1971 book Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl and the Tree of Life republished also under the title Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent of Mexico. These myths often describe him as the a divine ruler of the mythical Toltecs of Tollan who after his expulsion from Tollan, travelled south or east to set up new cities and kingdoms. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. Aztec round dance for Quetzalcóatl and Xolotl (a dog-headed god who is Quetzalcóatl's companion), detail from a facsimile Codex Borbonicus (folio 26), c. 1520; original in the Chamber of Deputies, Paris, France. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. También tenía formas antropomórficas, por ejemplo en sus apariencia como Ehecatl el creador del viento. New users enjoy 60% OFF. Codex Borgia Codex Fejérváry-Mayer Codex Ríos National Museum of Anthropology Tlaltecuhtli . He appears in Post-classic tales from the Maya, Toltec, and Aztec cultures. 2014-11-23 - --Page 22-- Codex Borbonicus (Loubat 1899) Quetzalcoatl (L) Quetzalcóatl was the god of the morning and evening star. The structure of this prayer is double-layered — the supplicant begins with calling on the spirit of his bed to protect him, but then shifts to make a declaration of his extreme poverty and worthlessness as a robbery target. Códices Indigenas Mexicanos . This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcoatl is a … He was a creator deity … In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream. Die Europäer gewinnen den Erdball. The noise from the great market could be heard miles away... How did Aztecs become Christians after the Conquest? 100% satisfaction guaranteed. Guðrún Guðmundsdóttir and Björn Thorsteinsson translated Ebeling’s book into Icelandic. codex. Quetzalcoatl was often considered the god of the morning star, and his twin brother Xolotl was the evening star. / Quetzalcoatl est une divinité dans la culture et la littérature mésoaméricaines dont le nom vient de la langue nahuatl et signifie «serpent à plumes» ou «serpent à plumes de Quetzal». Creation MythsQuetzalcoatl-Ehécatl and his crafty brother Tezcatlipoca were in the business of creation. (Reproduction, late 20th century) Original image, pigment on handmade paper Reproduction, bronze and paint on wood, L. 13 cm x W. 1.5 cm x H. 12 cm BFPC collection #2012.41a. He is chopping a tree on the upper left hand side, and on a decorated platform on the lower left hand side. Greek equivalent Quetzalcóatl and his partner, painting of an Aztec manuscrpit, the Codex Borbonicus. In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico, the worship of Quetzalcoatl was ubiquitous. In some incredible escapades, they created the earth, sea and night sky and were regents of the first two ‘suns’, or world eras of the existing five. De la cultura azteca; Quetzalcóatl como se representa en el Codex Borbonicus. The Codex Borbonicus is the best preserved, most artistically developed and generally agreed to be the most pleasing (to Western art specialists) of the Aztec calendar-manuscripts that exist today. The human and animal were born at the same time, and hence shared the same mechanisms of the calender. Le prêtre qui représentait Xipe Totec se livrait à un rituel particulièrement macabre: il écorchait une victime et portait sa peau comme un vêtement pendant vingt jours. Quetzalcoatl, also known as Feathered Serpent, was a prominent supernatural entity or deity found in many Mesoamerican religions. The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. This last period was considered to bring bad luck because it was represented by Quetzalcoatl in his forceful guise of Wind. Marduk Gods had nahualis, just like people, and the main figure of image 3 is Xolotl, the dog nahuali of Quetzalcoatl. In the Aztec ritual calendar, different deities were associated with the cycle-of-year names: Quetzalcoatl was tied to the year Ce Acatl (One Reed), which correlates to the year 1519. He is the god of intelligence and self-reflection, a patron of priests. 144,768,668 stock photos online. A fourth story narrates that Quetzalcoatl was born from Coatlicue, who already had four hundred children who formed the stars of the Milky Way. Quetzalcóatl and his partner, painting of an Aztec manuscrpit, the Codex Borbonicus The first people to grow cacao trees were the Maya, one of the oldest civilisations on the American continent. Quetzalcoatl is Nahuatl quetzalli “tail feather of the quetzal bird” and coatl “snake”0), the Feathered Serpent–major deity of ancient Mexico. The first keeper of written records, he was patron of the Calmecac, a school for noble children who learned to paint histories and astrology, as well as practice the art of war. Mesopotamian equivalent Historian Matthew Restall concludes that: Quetzalcoatl Mural in Acapulco by Diego Rivera. The double symbolism used in its name is considered allegoric to the dual nature of the deity, where being feathered represents its divine nature or ability to fly to reach the skies, and being … He was a patron of many crafts such as writing, and metal and stone work and represented workers of these crafts. His hair is red and his body painted with red and white stripes. Quetzalcoatl was associated with the windgod Ehecatl and is often depicted with his insignia: a beak-like mask. Le Codex Borbonicus est un codex indigène du Mexique central, ouvrage rituel aztèque dont on ne peut affirmer avec certitude s'il s'agit d'un codex préhispanique ou colonial [1]. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream. No accounts written by the Aztecs agree with Cortés and his men, and Professor Felipe Fernández-Armesto tells us why (follow the link below...), This article was uploaded to the Mexicolore website on Aug 31st 2013, (Written/compiled by Julia Flood/Mexicolore). Codex Magliabechiano Tonatiuh . In the iconography of the classic period Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld. Why did Quetzalcoatl have so many guises? In his text, Ebeling talked about how Moctezuma II welcomed Hernán Cortés as Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcoatl It was also venerated and called Kukulkan among the Yucatec Maya and Q'uq'umatz and Tohilamong the K'iche' Maya. They predated the Aztecs and perhaps even battled with them towards the end of Tula’s cultural and economic dominance in Mesoamerica. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya the deity began acquiring human features. Under the guise of wind, he was called Quetzalcoatl-Ehécatl and was considered a great cultural hero. The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. General Information Codex: Borbonicus The God Quetzalcoatl is the Feathered Serpent or Precious Twin. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Mormon faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine. Considered by some to be Quetzalcoatl’s double, assistant or twin, Xolotl aided Quetzalcoatl when he descended to the Mictlan to recover the bones of humankind. La série la plus remarquable faisant explicitant référence aux codex mexicains est celle des Códices Indigenas Mexicanos éditée à partir du 2 octobre 1982, après validation du projet soumis par la Comisión Consultiva de Emisiones Postales Conmemorativas y Especiales. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, Codex Borbonicus, Ca XVI century AD. This is because he dropped, but then saved, the bones of humankind as he tripped over a quail while escaping from the Mictlan (Graulich, 1996). 07v (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 8: Quetzalcoatl (left) and Tezcatlipoca in one of a two-page binding together of the lunar and solar calendars. The cosmic battle between the two brothers has been interpreted as a dualistic opposition between creative and destructive forces (Taube, 1993, p82). On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbo… Feathered Serpent head at the Ciudadela complex in Teotihuacan. While not usually feathered, classic Maya serpent iconography seems related to the belief in a sky-, Venus-, creator-, war- and fertility-related serpent deity. He is featured on the left in the upper and lower panels of the page. Readers will find this month's special topic mouth-watering! Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. Like the other three (Tezcatlipoca, Camaxtle and Huitzilopochtli) he was a tutelary god, responsible for more dramatic acts of creation than most of the characters in the Aztec pantheon! Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Mayan Vision Serpent shown below. Geschichte der Neuzeit bis’ , in 1789. A Quetzalcoatl temple was also created at the complex of Ciudadela and the hieroglyphic depiction of Quetzalcoatl was included in the Codex Borbonicus. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. There was also the symbol of the feathered serpent god of the Aztecs known as Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. Images of serpents have been represented in Mesoamerican art since Olmec times, and we know that they are related to fertility and the earth. However, Quetzalcoatl had another invocation that would help Venus through the underworld as the Evening Star: Xolotl, the dog (pic 10). Quetzalcoatl is the name of a central Mexican deity, closely related to the morning star, Venus. Using ancient sounds in modern music compositions, ‘Do you know the names of all the Aztec gods?’, What happened to the Aztec gods after the Conquest? The bottom left-hand symbol is for wind. They discussed the Eyrbggia saga in the epilogue. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. As an Aztec deity, he was one of four sons of the creator god Ometeotl, associated with the wind god, and the patron god of arts and knowledge. Dans de nombreuses versions du mythe, Quetzalcoatl a travaillé en opposition à son frère Tezcatlipoca. 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