The wear coefficient is a physical coefficient used to measure, characterize and correlate the wear of materials. The apparatus has a sensitivity of 10 -18 watt, a noise level of 10 -9 > volt, and a voltage resolution of one part in 10

^{5}. Mathematically it can be given as:-In extrinsic semiconductor the current carrying charge carriers are of one type either electrons or hole, like in N-type semiconductor the charge carriers are electrons and in P-type semiconductor the charge carriers are holes. Hall effect measurements The coefficient of variation (CV) is a relative measure of variability that indicates the size of a standard deviation in relation to its mean.It is a standardized, unitless measure that allows you to compare variability between disparate groups and characteristics.It is also known as the relative standard deviation (RSD). An apparatus is described for measuring the ordinary Hall coefficient of ferromagnetic metals such as Ni and of ferrimagnetic semiconductors such as Fe 3 O 4.An alternating electric field at 1000 cps is used with a static magnetic field. Hall effect, development of a transverse electric field in a solid material when it carries an electric current and is placed in a magnetic field that is perpendicular to the current. Ordinary Hall effect (OHE) origin of OHE: Lorentz force (definition) The OHE describes the fact that charge is accumulated at sides of metallic wire, when an external magnetic field H is applied perpendicularly to the wire. For most combinations of materials µd is less than µs. As discussed in the module on Hall effect measurements in Cu, the Hall coefficient RH is given by the following equation: RH = VHt/IB = 1/ne (1) Recall that when electrons are the charge carriers, H is negative and when R holes are the charge carriers, H is positive. There are many questions: how from measurement of the Hall effect of metals we can get the total density of free electrons, how find the density n eff of randomly moving electrons, their diffusion coefficient D and drift mobility m drift, the Fermi energy E F, velocity of electrons v F at the Fermi level, the length of the free pass? carriers will recombine before reaching the measuring probes. samples by measuring electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient. known charge of an electron and this measured Hall constant, it is possible to calculate the density of free electrons in each of these metals. In Figure 3 we have the electric draft of the measuring circuits. The Hall coefficient is just the reciprocal of the total current-carrying charge in the conductor, and has the same sign as the sign of this charge. Plug the measured values into the equation and solve. The unit of R H is m 3 /Coulomb. Background. An apparatus is described for measuring the ordinary Hall coefficient of ferromagnetic metals such as Ni and of ferrimagnetic semiconductors such as Fe 3 O 4 . Conductivity is a measure of how well a solution conducts electricity. Resistance, magnetoresistance and Hall measurements were performed in a home built cryostat up to a maximum field of 12T. An alternating electric field at 1000 cps is used with a static magnetic field. Hall Coefficients and Number of electrons per unit volume of Materials. Theoretical Background Current is the rate at which charge ﬂows and can be described as Q/t. Hall Effect Measurement in Copper (Electrical Transport Option) Prof. Richard Averitt, UC San Diego . The Hall Probe must be rotated in the field until the position of maximum voltage is reached. It could not be compared to a standard value as the exact composition of the semi-conductor is unknown. In PHE, the electric field, magnetic field, and measured voltage are coplanar. 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